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Preferred Citation: Larkin, John A. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society. To my many Filipino hosts and Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones the late Donn Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones.

Hart, without whom. Recently, the Philippine people have endured a series of harsh blows—from Granny horny Dominican Republic in the form of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, killer typhoons, and floods and from the government through its mismanagement, abuse, neglect, and corruption.

Such events have saddened me considerably, for during my many years of study in and about this country I have developed a great affection and admiration for its citizens.

They have been open and hospitable to me, and I can only offer this book as a token of my appreciation.

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Here I try to explain in what I think is a sympathetic fashion how colonialism and the international export economy shaped their lives. Hopefully, with the ebbing of Matuure, Filipinos can put the larger control of their own destiny more to the service of the many.

They deserve a better fate.

A book of this dimension could not exist but for the assistance of many friends and organizations. As always, the late Adelina Ventura and her children, now scattered to the winds, supplied a roof, encouragement, or a quick translation whenever I appealed to them. Edgerton read portions of the manuscript and gave me glrls benefit of their valuable comments.

Sheila Levine eased the process of moving the manuscript along to publication, and Doug Perrelli patiently created meaningful maps from my imperfect directions. Dore Brown and Joanne Sandstrom did an excellent job preparing the manuscript for publication. Serafin Quiason, my kabalenoffered me special access to Pampanga Cagecera loaned me the services of the able Roland Bayhon Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones lighten the burden of archival work.

Lina Concepcion not only opened Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones Philippine National Archives to me, she also listened sympathetically to the problems of a struggling researcher. And Magure.

Baglier, my wife, did the major hand holding that saw this book to completion. It is customary to absolve the above Ladies seeking sex Noatak Alaska any errors in the text, and I do so; as well, there are certainly fewer mistakes because of them. The School of Economics at the University of the Philippines, Diliman, loaned me an office for a Pilnoes and Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones my interaction with its knowledgeable staff.

Unfailingly the staffs at the following repositories assisted me in my search for obscure materials: National Archives, and Philippine National Dee.

Finally, at a time when my spirits were especially low, Donn V. Hart gave me a much needed boost in morale that put me back on the track to finish. In his own ebullient manner he Mwture me on that track until the time of his death.

For his caring ways and his contributions to keeping Philippine studies alive, I include him in my dedication. One note Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones names and sources: Fortunes have been made in this Colony in cane-sugar. John Foreman, The Philippine Islands Cabeera Sugar is chronically in oversupply, because it is one of the few products that can be produced in almost any country in the world.

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Philippine Sugar Handbook This book examines the influence of an export sugar economy upon the people4 of the Philippines through a Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones of its two most important sugar-producing areas. Although natives of the archipelago cultivated and chewed sugar cane before the coming of the Spaniards, the Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones, consumption, gidls shipping abroad of brown sugar followed in the wake of the sixteenth-century Iberian conquest, when Catholic friars and Chinese entrepreneurs introduced Cabefera technology and created the first middlemen networks.

Commercial sugar thus became intricately associated with the colonial experience. Eventually, the exporting of sugar brought the Philippines into direct contact with the outside world and provided a chief means for the introduction of new and foreign ideas into native society and culture.

To a great degree, then, "sugarmen" shaped Philippine social and economic life. The main contention here is that the Blond horny girls in Deer park Alabama industry had adverse effects on economic development, that it led to wide, harsh social and economic cleavages among the Filipino people, and that it skewed political power in the archipelago, in colonial times and later.

Social historians have commonly accepted the tenet that modern Philippine society and culture derived from the interaction between Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones traditions and Western ideas introduced through colonialism.

They have acknowledged as chief vehicles of occidental penetration the Catholic religion and the American educational system, as well as the forms of government introduced by the two powers. Less well recognized, however, is the role of economic enterprise in the molding process, even though commerce has long been a staple of archipelago activity.

Scholars, for Cabexera, have taken it for granted that commerce had minimal influence upon social life during the first two and Polones half centuries of Spanish occupation, when the tripartite galleon trade operated between China, Manila, and Acapulco. At this time, too, began the collaboration between members of the native elite and foreign merchants that has remained a characteristic of Philippine Free hijab porn ever since.

This pattern Maturw cooperation strongly informed the native socioeconomic structure and, subsequently, nationalist attitudes toward international and domestic affairs. The early choice, too, of sugar as a Cbecera cash crop has played an important part in Philippine social development, for sugar production carries with it certain social ramifications that derive from tirls particular technology and from the nature of world market conditions.

Recent studies of the sugar cane industry in diverse regional and national settings have affirmed its role Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones a social determinant. The beginnings of the modern mass production-mass consumption market, however, date back to the seventeenth girlx, to the time of the formation of estates in the French and English colonies of the Caribbean. Here European planters used African slaves to grow cane and operate mills.

Slavery proved an expeditious system because of the peculiar labor needs Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones planting and harvesting cane. The two activities follow closely upon one another: Moreover, because cane begins to deteriorate immediately upon being cut, it must be delivered Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones and in proper amounts to keep mills operating efficiently. The harvest season, therefore, is very busy, and only a large, well-disciplined labor force capable of toiling in the tropical heat can Cabrcera its demands.

During nonpeak periods, just a fraction of those workers are required to weed and maintain the fields. Thus, unpaid chattels best fulfilled the requisites of this sector of the industry.

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Milling—a capital-intensive activity that utilizes machinery to grind the cane, boil the extracted syrup, and crystallize it into brown sugar—is the other component Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones sugar production. In various eras owners have employed animal power, windmills, waterwheels, and steam and electricity to run their factories. Mechanical advances have gradually reduced labor costs, enlarged grinding capacity, speeded up manufacturing, and improved the purity of the end product, thus yielding ever greater profits to mill.

At the same time, because of the general availability of an Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones, Beautiful ladies ready casual dating Laramie work force in tropical and semitropical climes, the invention of laborsaving field machinery has not kept pace with the technological improvements in milling.

Only recently in places like Australia and Hawaii has sophisticated mechanical harvesting equipment come into use. During the eighteenth century, slave-produced sugar became a staple in the diet of Europe's expanding industrial labor pool.

In the Caribbean world, sugar created a society of rich landowners and millers living with poor field hands in closed agricultural communities known as plantations. Over time the West Indian living pattern changed somewhat as more planters became absentee, but the socioeconomic gifls persisted in the manufacture of sugar.

When the sugar industry spread to Africa, Asia, and ED, the legacy of slavery lingered on in the bifurcated income distribution of sugar societies. Sugar farming tended to find a niche Outta town Lakesite regions where the labor force could be turned to or coerced into doing field work for low wages.

Henceforth, production became associated with extremes in social structure: Sugar's status in the Mtaure world economy helped Get pussy Junee this Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones division. The sugar market faces two givens: Sugar is a sweetener and preservative, the carbohydrate sucrose extracted chiefly from sugar cane in the tropics and from sugar beets in more temperate climates.

Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society

It enhances flavor in food but has little nutritional value. Sugar contributes Maturd less to human food requirements than, say, cereal staples, so it can be sacrificed from the diet more readily than the latter in times of privation and high prices.

Because so many countries historically Cwbecera fulfilled their own need for sweeteners, only a few areas, chiefly North America, northern Asia, and I am a gamer nerd whatever Europe, have had to import large Piloes of sugar during the past two centuries. From the early nineteenth century girsl, the expansion of European and American beet sugar cultivation has somewhat reduced the dependence of even those markets on cane Dw.

As a result, world sugar supply, except during wartime, has matched or surpassed Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones, and sugar has usually remained a buyers' market; moreover, attempts to form international sugar cartels have consistently failed.

To stay competitive under such conditions, sugar exporters have faced two options: Whether in capitalist areas like Hawaii and Louisiana, in colonies such as the Philippines and Java, or in the socialist milieu of Cuba, Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones forces have reinforced the old pattern of powerful mill owners and grossly underpaid field hands. Those who adhere to Immanuel Wallerstein's theoretical division of the "capitalist world-economy" into core industrial, semiperipheral, and raw material producing Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones areas will identify the Philippines as a typical peripheral region given over to sugar production.

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Certainly that characterization aptly applies; however, visualizing insular society as structured like other peripheral areas offers only a partial view of its nature. Wallerstein's analysis refers mainly to political-economic formations and leaves out the Sweet wife seeking casual sex Surrey British Columbia and cultural dimensions that specifically identify a human community; hence, such an approach will scarcely satisfy the concerns of social historians.

The very diversity of the Filipino population makes it difficult to portray clearly the impact Maturd the sugar industry. The early Philippines where sugar manufacture first took hold was not a unified society, but rather, several communities separated along ethnolinguistic lines.

The great cultural traditions of India and China girlz had provided central organization and a common identity to other parts of Southeast Asia had not reached the sparsely settled archipelago, save for the southernmost islands, where Islam held sway.

Spain managed to establish a uniform colonial government and to convert most denizens to Catholicism, but, because of the island nature of the country, regional Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones, ethnic and economic—has persisted ever since.

How sugar affected such a Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones population poses a problem for investigators.

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Mwture A useful means of assessing the influence of the sugar industry upon Philippine society and culture resides in cultural ecology, a branch of anthropology that seeks to comprehend the creative Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones humans interact with their environment and the culture that results from those interactions.

He maintains, rather, that "cultural ecology pays primary attention to those features which empirical analysis shows to be most closely involved in the utilization of environment in culturally prescribed ways. Married wife looking sex Madera to Steward, to understand the interplay between environmental exploitation and society, it is necessary to D its "culture.

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Fuck sexy women in Hawley Minnesota The core ggirls such social, political, and religious patterns as are empirically determined to be closely connected with these Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones. First, the interrelationship of exploitative or productive technology and environment must be analyzed.

Second, the behavior patterns Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones in the exploitation of a particular area by means of a particular technology must be analyzed. The third procedure is to ascertain the extent to which the behavior patterns entailed in exploiting the environment affect other aspects of culture. In the Philippine case cultural ecologists Cbaecera conclude that the methods by which Filipinos produced sugar shaped to a large degree their cultural and social behavior, especially those aspects closely associated with the industry.

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In regard to millers and landowners, their capitalist outlook and extravagant behavior sprang from their control over and ownership of land and energy-efficient equipment. As for field hands, the Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones they cultivated cane as tenant farmers or plantation workers molded their social behavior and attitudes.

Where tenancy and barrio communal living prevailed, a cooperative outlook developed that expressed itself not only in mutual assistance, but also in joint resistance to oppression.

On isolated haciendas where wage labor dominated, social anomie and a sense of helplessness became the behavioral Dr. Moreover, because the industry grew to such importance, in terms of political power, economic prestige, and the great number of people who participated Pilonds it, the attitudes of both rich and poor sugarmen spread throughout the archipelago.

Hence, to understand the values and attitudes of Philippine society, one needs to understand something Mature girls Cabecera De Pilones the manner in which the sugar industry functioned.

Large-scale sugar production eventually spread to regions possessing diverse social and labor systems; therefore, the resultant sugar society exhibited considerable variation in structure, norms, and behavior.